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List of Citizen models

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"Doc, since he's not taking the streets, you might as well get him out of his civvies."
Barney Calhoun[src]

This aim of this list is to feature every Citizen/Rebel model and its variants found in Half-Life 2 and its Episodes, with their Hammer numbers, facemap filenames, model types, and other variations, as well as the several models cut from the final game, in the chronological order when known.


Standard Citizens[edit]

Gas mask Citizen version[edit]

Location (model): models/citizen.mdl (missing)
Location (textures): materials/Models/Citizen_17

Early in the game's development, the Air Exchange was to replace Earth's air with toxic gases, forcing Citizens to wear gas masks, or rather gas-permeable hoods, along with a green hazmat suit and an apron, and red "identibands" on the left arm,[1][2] reminiscent of an outfit worn by the real-life Chernobyl liquidators. In the end, the gas mask concept was removed because that would make Citizens' expressions difficult to read,[3] and kept only for the Combine humanoid units. It was designed by Dhabih Eng.[1]

The model was first introduced in the first Half-Life 2 demonstration, 2001's Get Your Free TVs!, and was also to be featured in the E3 2002 demo "Strider". The model is missing from the game files, but all the textures are present, allowing a complete restoration. As found in the WC map pack map demo_npcs, the model was simply named Citizen.mdl. In the map pack, it is used in numerous maps.

Other instances of the outfit include a face texture variant to be used for Samuel, the legs having been reused for Cohrt's model, and concept art for Eli Maxwell featuring the character with a similar outfit except for the gas mask.

Orange version[edit]

Version seen only in a piece of concept art for the Combine Barricade, consisting of an orange jumpsuit similar to the ones used in some prisons in the USA.

Wasteland Citizen version[edit]

Location (model): models (Missing)
Location (textures): materials/Models/Wastelandcitizen/

The leak files features a single texture file for its model, base.vtf, in the folder Wastelandcitizen. Interestingly, the texture is entirely brown. The model, missing from the files, is named wastelandcitizen1.mdl, as found in the WC map pack map demo_npcs.

Samuel version[edit]

Location (model): models
Location (textures): materials/Models/Wastelandcitizen/

While no other Citizen instance identical to that model of the cut Citizen Samuel found in the leak is known, it is found for the earliest known Zombie models, only found in the Half-Life 2 leak as texture files; all three have an identical outfit, with the same armband on the left arm; only the color of their faces and Headcrab differ. The Classic Zombie textures are in materials/Models/Zombie/, the Fast Zombie is in materials/Zombie_Fast/old, and the Poison Zombie is in materials/Zombie_Poison/old.

The model also shares its color with the Wasteland Citizen variant, and wears an armband on the left arm like the gas mask and E3 2003 Citizens.

Orange collar version[edit]

Location (model): N/A
Location (textures): materials/Models/Citizen/City/

This variant exists in the leak files as a number of torso and leg textures, as well as hands and shoes, found in the same texture folder as the City version. Interestingly, many of these textures share similarities to other models, including the same head texture that was to be used for the "C17_citizen_minimal" stenographer chasm worker, the same foot texture as the gasmask citizen, and many textures with the same general shape as Samuel's textures, implying that this model may have used the same body as a basis. It is also worth noting that, although the right arm's texture exists, there is no left arm equivalent, meaning that this model may have not had the "identiband" armband found on the gasmask citizens, Samuel, and the later E3 2003 Citizens.

E3 2002 version[edit]

Location (model): N/A
Location (textures): N/A

Version seen in the E3 2002 demonstration "Terminal", with similar tones present in the children's outfit. Features a blue coat, brown trousers, black gloves, and on the back a distorted orange rectangle with Combine markings. The model is missing from the leak files but can be restored with other related leak textures.

Early 2003 version (City)[edit]

Location (model): N/A
Location (textures): materials/Models/Citizen/City/

Version seen in a more recent version of the E3 2002 demonstration "Terminal", and mostly a color variant of the E3 2002 version. Features a green coat, brown trousers, black gloves, and on the back a distorted red rectangle with Combine markings, such as the claw symbol. The model is missing from the leak files; only its textures can be found, allowing a restoration.

E3 2003 version[edit]

Location (model): models/Humans/
Location (textures): materials/Models/Citizen/ and materials/Models/Humans/

With a cream-colored coat and green trousers, it is featured in the E3 2003 demonstrations "Barricade" and "Striders" and used in the Half-Life 2 leak.

In the leak files, only the male models exist, except Sandro; the female models only exist as facemaps. It also features a medic variant, with a greener tone, and a variant only present in the textures, with an even greener tone, named "ammo", of unknown use. The Downtrotten, Refugee and Rebel variants from the final game are represented by a single model. The facemaps are closer to the faces of their original reference models, which underwent further alterations for the variants of the final game. See the Retail Citizen list below for pictures of each model.

The version of Hammer featured in the leak features alternate names for some of the male models, which are simply "Male + number" in the final version. The file halflife2.fgd from the leak files contains the warning that they should not be included in the final version ("don't ship with these names").

While this version features the variants seen in Half-Life 2, it also includes facemaps of Citizens cut from the final game: One male named "Trav" (based on Travis Brady, an artist at Valve who had left by the time the game released), and three females, Laura (based on Valve's Laura Dubuk), Linda, and Tamm, which explains that the final game features more male Citizens than females.

As part of the 2016-2017 leak, high resolution of these facemaps were released. It includes all males and females, as well as the initially missing Sandro and the early Samuel facemaps. Some examples applied to the retail models are included in the Retail section.

The various SDK images of the 2003 models and their alternate model names are found near their related models in the Retail section of this article.

E3 2004 Teaser Trailer version[edit]

Location (model): N/A
Location (textures): N/A

Version with back straps seen in the E3 2004 Teaser Trailer. An edited version of the texture was reused in the retail game as the dressed corpse model, with the white logos made orange.

The texture sheet was eventually made available as a part of the 2016-2017 Half-Life 2 leak.

Citizen minimal version[edit]

Location (model): models (Missing)
Location (textures): materials/Models/Citizen/Factory_sitting/

Was to be seen working in high numbers on desks in the stenographer's chasm set in the Combine Factories area. Was also used as a bus driver model in maps such as c17_road06.

The model, missing from the leak files, is named C17_citizen_minimal.mdl, as found in the WC map pack maps factory_08, c17_01_74, d1_garage_01_08, d1_garage_01_32, or c17_road06. Similarly to the gas mask Citizen, the texture files are present, allowing a complete restoration. It was to wear a light blue outfit, and have the head of the retail "Cheaple Male" Citizen model.

Worker version[edit]

Location (model): models
Location (textures): materials/Models/Citizen/Worker/

As its name implies, was to be seen working somewhere. In the WC map pack, it can only be found in the map demo_npcs. Variant of Mike and the Borealis worker.

Borealis worker version[edit]

Location (model): models
Location (textures): materials/Models/Citizen/Borealis/

As its name implies, it was to work on the Borealis, and is a variant of Mike and the other worker. It comes in two models: Alive (borealisworker.mdl) and dead (DeadBorealisWorker.mdl). In the WC map pack, only the corpse variant is used, and only in the Borealis maps prepared for the E3 2002 demonstration "Ship" (e3_ship, e3_shiptest, and e3_meathook).


Location (model): models
Location (textures): materials/Models/Citizen/Children/

The Citizens were originally to include children,[1][2] to be seen as child workers in the Combine Factories area, notably in the Cremator factory, under the supervision of Civil Protection officers.[4] The absence of children in Half-Life 2 was canonically explained by the use of the suppression field.

It has two variants: Female (model name child_worker_f1.mdl) and male (model name child_worker_m1.mdl), each holding a Cremator head.

In the WC map pack, they are found in Combine Factories maps such as various revisions of c17_01, d1_garage, e3_industrial (To be seen during the E3 2002 demo "Industrial"), in display cases among other models in Palace maps such as various revisions of d4_palace01 and jf-roof, and in revisions of cbctv, a map made by series' writer Marc Laidlaw consisting of seeing through a computer monitor Breen's head model (consul.mdl) over the G-Man's body, surrounded by male children.

Other instances include the body of a child under a bed in a clinic in concept art for Ravenholm, as well as a pre-release Half-Life 2 screenshot featuring a beached boat with City Citizens and a female child aboard.



Location (model): models/humans/
Location (textures): materials/models/humans/

As seen in Hammer, the retail Citizen comes in three types (or "groups", as used in the model folder names). Through these types, their faces have various differences: different hair color, facial hair, or small face changes such as different mouths or eyebrows, etc.

  • "Downtrodden": The standard blue outfit (a possible reference to the standard blue overalls worn by members of the Outer Party in the novel Nineteen Eighty-Four). Gordon Freeman himself arrived in City 17 in this attire.
  • "Refugee": The same blue outfit as that of Downtrodden, but in lesser condition and sometimes with a shirt beige instead of blue (the one featured in the Classic Zombie).
  • "Rebel": Standard or medic, appearing during City 17's uprising. These appear to be camoflauge or white colored versions of the apparel worn by Civil Protection. However some Rebels also don the two other outfits.

According to Moby Francke, the Citizens couldn't overpower the player visually, but rather compliment the world instead of standing out, so they had to look oppressed and downtrodden. Their outfits are designed to reflect the location and environment they live in by dressing everyone with the same standard issued clothing to give a prison-like atmosphere. Half-Life 2 being experienced in three days, the team wanted the Citizens to correspond with the time and location of events throughout the game, thus using the "Downtrodden" version at the start of the game, the "Refugee" version when discovering the Underground Railroad along the Canals, and finally the "Rebel" version when the Resistance launches the uprising.[1]


  • Hammer model name: Male 1.
  • Texture name: Van.
  • Alternate Hammer model name: Morgan,[2] a possible reference to actor Morgan Freeman, who has similar spots under the eyes (Named "dermatosis papulosa nigra").
  • Real-life model: Van Crowder.
  • It is the very first Citizen seen in Half-Life 2, on the train. Two refugees that use this face are Matt and Leon.


  • Hammer model name: Male 2.
  • Texture name: Ted.
  • Alternate Hammer model name: Backmantis,[2] a possible pun between "Backman" and "black mantis".
  • Real-life model: Valve's Ted Backman.
  • Used for instance for the Citizen seen in the interrogation room at the City 17 Trainstation, the Citizen who presumably committed suicide at the Petroleum Station, or the AR3 Rebel in Episode Two. Also used in the leak for the Conscript model and the "RPGGuy", Odessa Cubbage's temporary incarnation.
  • His hair was reused on Chell's male placeholder used during Portal’s development, along with Eric's face.


  • Hammer model name: Male 3.
  • Texture name: Joe.
  • Alternate Hammer model name: Shaft, a possible reference to actor Richard Roundtree, famous for his character John Shaft.[2]
  • Real-life model: Larry "The Count" Heard, a famous musician, DJ and music producer from Chicago, also known as "Mr. Fingers". "Joe" is actually from Joe Cairo, Vance's reference model.
  • He can be seen as one of the two Citizens looking through the windows before the Civil Protection raid at the start of Half-Life 2.


  • Hammer model name: Male 4.
  • Texture name: Eric.
  • Alternate Hammer model name: N/A.
  • Real-life model: Valve's Eric Kirchmer with a shaved head.
  • The original reference picture, featured in Raising the Bar, was also one of the bases for Gordon Freeman's face[1] and used for the stripped Combine Soldier.
  • His face was reused on Chell's male placeholder used during Portal’s development, along with Ted's hair.


  • Hammer model name: Male 5.
  • Texture name: Art.
  • Alternate Hammer model name: N/A.
  • Real-life model: Art Min, a video game developer who worked for Looking Glass Studios and Ion Storm, among others.
  • Originally used for Samuel. He can be seen in-game as Laszlo. His facemap was reused for Counter-Strike: Source's Hostage 1.


  • Hammer model name: Male 6.
  • Texture name: Sandro.
  • Alternate Hammer model name: N/A.
  • Real-life model: Sandro Consi.
  • Used for Winston and Griggs. He is the only male model from the retail game to be missing from the Half-Life 2 leak files, both as a model or textures. The missing model and texture sources are included with the Source SDK as an example of a human model. His facemap was reused for Counter-Strike: Source's Hostage 2.


  • Hammer model name: Male 7.
  • Texture name: Mike.
  • Alternate Hammer model name: "Climber Mike",[2] a nod to the reference model.
  • Real-life model: Michael S. Smith.
  • Used for Joe, Sandy, and the second Citizen on the train at the start of Half-Life 2. Also used in the leak for the "Worker" and "Borealis worker" variants with different hair, more faithful to Michael S. Smith's actual appearance. He is also famous for being used for Gordon Frohman, the main protagonist of the fan-made webcomic Concerned, as John Freeman in the Half life: Full Life Consequences video series, and as Stanley in the Half-Life 2 mod version of The Stanley Parable.


  • Hammer model name: Male 8.
  • Texture name: Vance.
  • Alternate Hammer model name: "Mr. Rourke", a possible reference to actor Mickey Rourke.[2]
  • Real-life model: Joe Cairo, a basketball strength and conditioning coach, and the creator of the BEASTcamp athletic training.[5]
  • Originally used for Captain Vance, from whom he kept the name, while "Joe" was given to Male 3. Used for instance for the Citizen telling Gordon not to drink the water at the start of Half-Life 2; Sheckley, the Citizen giving instructions near the Autogun, and the Citizen arguing with the AR3 guy in Episode Two. His facemap was reused for Counter-Strike: Source's Hostage 3.


  • Hammer model name: Male 9.
  • Texture name: Erdin.
  • Alternate Hammer model name: Lucifer.[2]
  • Real-life model: Erdin Grcic.
  • One half of the Consoling Couple, the pondering Citizen sitting in the kitchen when Gordon goes through the apartment buildings at the start of Half-Life 2, Daniels and MIRT. His facemap was reused for the Classic Zombie, with added blood and no eyes. It was also reused as the basis for the Day of Defeat: Source player models.
  • Due to what is likely a mistake, the rebel variant of Erdin uses the same hand texture as the rebel variant of Van.

Cheaple Male[edit]

Cheaple Male.
  • Hammer model name: Cheaple Male 1.
  • Texture name: Andrew (leak); Male Cheaple (retail).
  • Alternate Hammer model name: Cheaple Vanessa's Brother.[2]
  • Real-life model: Warren Slough, brother of Vanessa Slough, Ted Backman's wife. Slough passed away in 2006.[6]
  • The low resolution Citizen model, used when Citizens are seen from afar. It only uses the Downtrotten type. Each time he is seen, he walks from a point to another, re-spawning each time in a loop. He appears for instance in the screens at Kleiner's Lab, where the G-Man can be seen, and at Black Mesa East, right before getting into the elevator with Mossman. His facemap was also used in the leak for the stenographer's chasm worker. "Cheaple" is probably a portmanteau of "cheap" and "people", related to the model's low level of detail. See also "Charple".


  • Hammer model name: Female 1.
  • Texture name: Joey.
  • Real-life model: Joey Paresa.
  • The other half of the Consoling Couple, as well as Arlene and Jacobs.


  • Hammer model name: Female 2.
  • Texture name: Kanisha.
  • Real-life model: Kanisha Patel Speyrer, wife of Valve's David Speyrer.
  • Used for instance as one of the two Citizens looking through the windows before the CP raid at the start of Half-Life 2.


  • Hammer model name: Female 3.
  • Texture name: Kim.
  • Real-life model: Kim Harris-Jones.


  • Hammer model name: Female 4.
  • Texture name: Chau.
  • Real-life model: Chau Luu, an actress (in theater, film and commercial), a voice actress, a model, and a television host of Vietnamese descent and living in Los Angeles.[7]
  • Used for Noriko and Mary.


  • Hammer model name: Female 5.
  • Texture name: Naomi.
  • Real-life model: Naomi Cotton.
  • Used for instance for the woman asking Gordon if he and the other Citizens were the only ones on the train, near the turnstile at the start of Half-Life 2 (named "chainlinkgirl" in the map). Her model name is "female_06", although she is the fifth in Hammer.


  • Hammer model name: Female 6.
  • Texture name: Lakeetra.
  • Real-life model: Lakeetra Gilbert.
  • Used for instance for Shorepoint Base's medic. Her model name is "female_07", although she is the sixth in Hammer.


Models of Citizen corpses, or "Charple", charred or in decomposition. "Charple" is probably a portmanteau of "char" and "people". See also "Cheaple".


See also[edit]