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List of Citizen models

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"Doc, since he's not taking the streets, you might as well get him out of his civvies."
― Barney Calhoun[src]

This list features every Citizen/Rebel model and its variants found in Half-Life 2 and its Episodes, with their Hammer numbers, face texture filenames, model types, and other variations, as well as the several models cut from the final game.


Standard Citizens[edit]

Gas mask Citizen version, a.k.a. "Citizen 17"[edit]

Location (model): models/ (Missing)
Location (textures): materials/Models/Citizen_17/

Early in the game's development, the Air Exchange was to replace Earth's air with toxic gases, forcing Citizens to wear gas masks, or rather gas-permeable hoods, along with a green coat and an apron, and red "identibands" on the left arm.[1][2] In the end, the gas mask concept was removed because that would make Citizens' expressions difficult to read,[3] and kept only for the Combine humanoid units.

The model was first introduced in the first Half-Life 2 demonstration, 2001's Get Your Free TVs!, and was also to be featured in the E3 2002 demo "Strider". It is missing from the leak files, only its textures can be found. It also features a face variant to be used for Samuel.


Orange version[edit]

Version seen only in a piece of concept art for the Combine Barricade, consisting of an orange jumpsuit similar to the ones used in some prisons in the USA.

E3 2002 version[edit]

Version seen in the E3 2002 demonstration "Terminal", with similar tones present in the children's outfit. Consists of a green coat, blue trousers, and black gloves. The model and its textures are missing from the leak files.

"City" version[edit]

Location (model): N/A
Location (textures): materials/Models/Citizen/City/

Version seen in a more recent version of the E3 2002 demonstration "Terminal". Features a green coat, brown trousers, and black gloves; in the back is a distorted red rectangle with a black claw Combine symbol on the bottom, and black markings above, in a distorted white rectangle. The model is missing from the leak files, only its textures can be found.

E3 2003 version[edit]

Location (model): models/Humans/
Location (textures): materials/Models/Citizen and materials/Models/Humans/

With a cream-colored coat and green trousers, it is featured in the E3 2003 demonstrations "Barricade" and "Striders" and used in the Half-Life 2 leak.

In the leak files, only the male models exist, except Sandro; the female models only exist as face textures. It also features a medic variant, with a greener tone, and a variant only present in the textures, with an even greener tone, named "ammo", of unknown use. The Downtrotten, Refugee and Rebel variants from the final game are represented by a single model. The faces are closer to the faces of their original reference models, which underwent further alterations for the variants of the final game.

The version of Hammer featured in the leak features alternate names for some of the male models, which are simply "Male + number" in the final version. The file "halflife2.fgd" from the leak files contains the warning that they should not be included in the final version ("don't ship with these names").

While this version features the variants seen in the final game, as seen in the face textures several variants are unused, including one male named "Trav" (based on Travis Dunlop, present in the game's credit despite being cut), and three females, Laura (based on Valve's Laura Dubuk), Linda, and Tamm.

The SDK images of the models and their alternate model names are placed near their related models in the Retail section of this article.

E3 2004 Teaser Trailer version[edit]

Version with back straps seen in the E3 2004 Teaser Trailer, still used in the retail game as the dressed corpse model, though it features orange logos that are white in the teaser.

Location (model): N/A
Location (textures): N/A

"Worker" version[edit]

Location (model): models/
Location (textures): materials/Models/Citizen/Worker/

As its name implies, was to be seen working somewhere in City 17. Variant of Mike and the Borealis worker.


Stenographer's chasm worker version, a.k.a. "Factory sitting"[edit]

Location (model): models/ (Missing)
Location (textures): materials/Models/Citizen/Factory_sitting

Was to be seen working in high numbers on desks in the stenographer's chasm set in the Combine Factories area. The model is missing from the leak files, only its textures can be found. It was to wear a light blue outfit, and have the head of the retail "Cheaple Male" Citizen model. It was to be seen during the E3 2002 demo "Industrial", which consists of a visit of the Combine Factories area.


Borealis worker version[edit]

Location (model): models
Location (textures): materials/Models/Citizen/Borealis

As its name implies, was to work on the Borealis. Variant of Mike and the City worker. A corpse variant was to be seen during the ship's visit.

Children version[edit]

Location (model): models
Location (textures): materials/Models/Citizen/Children

The Citizens were originally to include children,[1][2] to be seen working in the Combine Factories area, notably in the Cremator factory, under the supervision of Civil Protection officers,[4] and as corpses in Ravenholm. The absence of children in Half-Life 2 was canonically explained by the use of the Suppression Field.

It has two variants, female (model name "child_worker_f1") and male (model name "child_worker_m1"), each holding a Cremator head. They were to be seen during the E3 2002 demo "Industrial", which consists of a visit of the Combine Factories area.



As seen in Hammer, the retail Citizen comes in three types (or "groups", as used in the model folder names):

  • "Downtrodden", which is the standard blue outfit (a possible reference to the blue overalls worn by the Outer Party in the novel Nineteen Eighty-Four). Gordon Freeman himself arrived in City 17 in this attire.
  • "Refugee", the same blue outfit, but in lesser condition and sometimes with a shirt beige instead of blue (the one featured in the Classic Zombie).
  • "Rebel", standard or medic, appearing during the city's uprising, although some still come in the two other types. Through these types, their face tend to change a bit: different hair color, shaving, beard, goatee and moustache variations for the men, different skin details on the face, different mouths or eyebrows, etc.

According to Moby Francke, the Citizens couldn't overpower the player visually, but rather compliment the world instead of standing out, so they had to look oppressed and downtrodden. Their outfits are designed to reflect the location and environment they live in by dressing everyone with the same standard issued clothing to give a prison-like atmosphere. Half-Life 2 being experienced in three days, the team wanted the Citizens to correspond with the time and location of events throughout the game, thus using the "Downtrodden" version at the start of the game, the "Refugee" version when discovering the Underground Railroad along the Canals, and finally the "Rebel" version when the Resistance launches the uprising.[1]



Van, first variant.
Van, second variant.
  • Hammer model name: Male 1.
  • Texture name: Van.
  • Alternate Hammer model name: Morgan,[2] a possible reference to actor Morgan Freeman.
  • Real-life model: Van Crowder.
  • Has two variants: The first version is the very first Citizen seen in Half-Life 2, on the train, with a full beard. The other, more faithful to Crowder's face, is used for Matt and Leon.



  • Hammer model name: Male 2.
  • Texture name: Ted.
  • Alternate Hammer model name: Backmantis,[2] a possible pun between "Backman" and "black mantis".
  • Real-life model: Valve's Ted Backman.
  • Used for instance for the Citizen seen in the interrogation room at the City 17 Trainstation, the Citizen who presumably committed suicide at the Petroleum Station, or the AR3 Rebel in Episode Two. Also used in the leak for the Conscript model and the "RPGGuy", Odessa Cubbage's temporary incarnation.



  • Hammer model name: Male 3.
  • Texture name: Joe.
  • Alternate Hammer model name: Shaft, a possible reference to actor Richard Roundtree, famous for his character John Shaft.[2]
  • Real-life model: Larry "The Count" Heard, a famous musician, DJ and music producer from Chicago, also known as "Mr. Fingers". "Joe" is actually from Joe Cairo, "Vance"'s reference model.
  • He can be seen as one of the two Citizens looking through the windows before the Civil Protection raid at the start of Half-Life 2.



  • Hammer model name: Male 4.
  • Texture name: Eric.
  • Alternate Hammer model name: N/A.
  • Real-life model: Valve's Eric Kirchmer with a shaved head.
  • The original reference picture, featured in Raising the Bar, was also one of the bases for Gordon Freeman's face[1] and used for the stripped Overwatch Soldier.



  • Hammer model name: Male 5.
  • Texture name: Art.
  • Alternate Hammer model name: N/A.
  • Real-life model: Art Min, a video game developer who worked for Looking Glass Studios and Ion Storm, among others.
  • Originally used for Samuel. He can be seen in-game as Laszlo. His face was reused for Counter-Strike: Source's Hostage 1.



  • Hammer model name: Male 6.
  • Texture name: Sandro.
  • Alternate Hammer model name: N/A.
  • Real-life model: Sandro Consi.
  • Used for Winston and Griggs. He is the only male model from the retail game to be missing from the Half-Life 2 leak files, both as a model or textures. His face was reused for Counter-Strike: Source's Hostage 2.



  • Hammer model name: Male 7.
  • Texture name: Mike.
  • Alternate Hammer model name: "Climber Mike",[2] a nod to the reference model.
  • Real-life model: Michael S. Smith.
  • Used for Joe, Jacob, Sandy or the second Citizen on the train at the start of Half-Life 2. Also used in the leak for the "Worker" and "Borealis worker" variants with different hair, more faithful to Michael S. Smith's actual appearance. He is also famous for being used for Gordon Frohman, the main protagonist of the fan-made webcomic Concerned, and as John Freeman in the Half life: Full Life Consequences video series.



  • Hammer model name: Male 8.
  • Texture name: Vance.
  • Alternate Hammer model name: "Mr. Rourke", a possible reference to actor Mickey Rourke.[2]
  • Real-life model: Joe Cairo, a basketball strength and conditioning coach, and the creator of the BEASTcamp athletic training.[5]
  • Originally used for Captain Vance, from whom he kept the name, while "Joe" was given to Male 3. Used for instance for the Citizen telling Gordon not to drink the water at the start of Half-Life 2; Sheckley, the Citizen giving instructions near the Autogun, and the Citizen arguing with the AR3 guy in Episode Two. His face was reused for Counter-Strike: Source's Hostage 3.



  • Hammer model name: Male 9.
  • Texture name: Erdin.
  • Alternate Hammer model name: Lucifer.[2]
  • Real-life model: Erdin Grcic.
  • One half of the Consoling Couple, the pondering Citizen sitting in the kitchen when Gordon goes through the apartment buildings at the start of Half-Life 2, Daniel and MIRT.


Cheaple Male[edit]

Cheaple Male.
  • Hammer model name: Cheaple Male 1.
  • Texture name: Andrew (leak); Male Cheaple (retail).
  • Alternate Hammer model name: Cheaple Vanessa's Brother.[2]
  • Real-life model: Warren Slough, brother of Vanessa Slough, Ted Backman's wife. Slough died in 2006.[6]
  • The low resolution Citizen model, used when Citizens are seen from afar. It only uses the Downtrotten type. Each time he is seen, he walks from a point to another, re-spawning each time in a loop. He appears for instance in the screens at Kleiner's Lab, where the G-Man can be seen, and at Black Mesa East, right before getting into the elevator with Mossman. His face was also used in the leak for the stenographer's chasm worker. "Cheaple" is probably a portmanteau of "cheap" and "people", related to the model's low level of detail. See also "Charple".



  • Hammer model name: Female 1.
  • Texture name: Joey.
  • Real-life model: Joey Paresa.
  • The other half of the Consoling Couple, as well as Arlene.



  • Hammer model name: Female 2.
  • Texture name: Kanisha.
  • Real-life model: Kanisha Patel Speyrer, wife of Valve's David Speyrer.
  • Used for instance as one of the two Citizens looking through the windows before the CP raid at the start of Half-Life 2.



  • Hammer model name: Female 3.
  • Texture name: Kim.
  • Real-life model: Kim Harris-Jones.



  • Hammer model name: Female 4.
  • Texture name: Chau.
  • Real-life model: Chau Luu, an actress (in theater, film and commercial), a voice actress, a model, and a television host of Vietnamese ascent and living in Los Angeles.[7]
  • Used for instance for Noriko or Mary.



  • Hammer model name: Female 5.
  • Texture name: Naomi.
  • Real-life model: Naomi Cotton.
  • Used for instance for the woman asking Gordon if he and the other Citizens were the only ones on the train, near the turnstile at the start of Half-Life 2 (named "chainlinkgirl" in the map). Her model name is "female_06", although she is the fifth in Hammer.



  • Hammer model name: Female 6.
  • Texture name: Lakeetra.
  • Real-life model: Lakeetra Gilbert.
  • Used for instance for Shorepoint Base's medic. Her model name is "female_07", although she is the sixth in Hammer.



Models of Citizen corpses, or "Charple", charred or in decomposition. "Charple" is probably a portmanteau of "char" and "people". See also "Cheaple".



See also[edit]